When the immune system goes awry and attacks the joints, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the result. A chronic, debilitating condition that has no cure, RA is two to three times more common in women than men, according to the Mayo Clinic.
About 1.3 million Americans suffer from RA, which can cause significant pain and joint deformity as it wears away joint linings, according to the Arthritis Foundation. It usually affects joints on both sides of the body equally and starts in the small joints of the wrists, hands, ankles and feet.
Scientists are unsure what causes RA, though some known risk factors include gender, age and genetics.
RA symptoms can be very vague at the onset, resembling those of many other illnesses. They also vary from patient to patient and may come and go. According to the Mayo Clinic, symptoms include:
Diagnosis & Tests
No single test confirms RA, so doctors usually rely on a variety of tests to make a diagnosis. These tests measure the amount of inflammation present in the body or study joint structure.
According to the Arthritis Foundation, tests include:
Medications & Treatments
Because RA has no cure, treatments are usually lifelong and focus on relieving symptoms as well as preventing and slowing joint damage.
Many over-the-counter and prescription drugs are available to treat RA, though some have potentially serious side effects which must be carefully monitored. Usually they are taken in combination. According to the Mayo Clinic, medications include:
Another major RA treatment is surgery, which is an option when drugs cannot prevent or slow joint damage. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), procedures include total joint replacement therapy, which substitutes man-made joints for damaged ones; tendon repair; synovectomy, which removes the joint lining; and joint fusion, which can stabilize joints or relieve pain.